SINCE(1)                                                              SINCE(1)

       since - display new lines from a text file

       since [-L | -R lines | -S | -Z] [-c sep] [-dn] [-F db] targets
       since -h
       since -V

       Since  keeps  a position in each target file ever presented to the pro-
       gram, which is recorded in db.   Each  new  execution  of  the  program
       recovers  the last position visited in the file, seeks to that location
       and copies new (appended) lines from that point to the present  end  of
       target file.

       The  new  end-of-file is recorded in the db file for the next execution
       of since's benefit.

       When the file changes inode or device, or gets  smaller  since  assumes
       all the lines are new, so it starts at the first line again.

       If  the target is a directory since outputs a list of the files in that
       directory that have changed (with regard to st_ctime) since that direc-
       tory was last viewed.  See stat(2).

       If the program is called as since then no options are forced.

       -c sep
              Appends  the character sep to each node name from each directory
              since processes.  Specify as '\000' to emulate -print0 output.

              Delete the record for each of the targets from the db after  the

       -F db
              The  path to the time stamp meta file.  The default is the base-
              name of the program in the present user's home  directory,  pre-
              fixed with a dot (.).

              Print a brief help message.

              List  the  status  of  each  of  the  targets from the db.  This
              includes a comparison to the present file  (if  it  exists)  the
              first  column  is  either  "no", "yes", or "new" for files which
              have no additional data, some additional data, or are not listed
              in  the  present  db.   Nonexistent  files  produce and error on

              Don't update target's length in the meta  file.   In  this  case
              since  outputs  starting  from the same point in the target next

       -R lines
              The number of lines to replay before  previous  position.   Some
              filters  require  some  context  to get started.  When there are
              fewer than lines lines in the file since  outputs  enough  blank
              lines  to  number  the  first  new line as number lines+1.  This
              options is silently ignored when the target is a directory.

              Set the current position for targets to the present end of  file
              before any lines are processed (aka. skip to the end).

              Show only version information, as well as the default db name.

              Replay each of the targets from the start (skip to zero).

       since -V
              Output the version of since and the default time-stamp path.

       since /etc/motd
              Display any new lines in /etc/motd.

       since -Zn /etc/motd
              A synonym for cat /etc/motd.

       since -L /etc/motd
              Compare the status of /etc/motd to the default db.

       since -Ld /etc/motd >/dev/null
              Remove  the  entry for /etc/motd from the db file.  The redirec-
              tion to /dev/null and the use of -L are the cheapest way to dis-
              card any output.

       xapply 'echo Start "%1"; since %1' *.log
              With  multiple  targets  specified it is very hard to tell where
              one ends and the next begins: in this example we use  xapply  to
              provide a "Start" line for each file.

       xclate -T"since %x" -m xapply since *.log
              Much  the  same  effect  with  a  little more xclate(1l) wrapper

       since </var/tmp
              Report the new files from the directory /var/tmp.  Yes the redi-
              rection is not a typing error.

       Linux volume managers have a penchant for picking different device num-
       bers for their volumes on  reboot  or  remount.   This  breaks  since's
       database  key  for  entries  and  replays  the  whole file.  Either the
       author(s) of LVM2 are missing the point of a device number, or I am.

       Files which are removed from the filesystem leave lines in the since db
       file,  which  may  cause strange behavior when a new file with the same
       device/inode/name combination is created.   Applications  should  us  a
       private  db  file  to avoid this issue, and truncate it at some obvious
       point in the application flow.

       The -S option can race with a very active file to  produce  some  unex-
       pected  output.   Redirect  since's  standard out to /dev/null to avoid

       The format of the db file is not documented and should never be assumed
       to be stable from version to version of since.  It might be a good idea
       to remove any db files after a major upgrade (i.e. the integer part  of
       the version number changes).

       The db format may not work between NFS clients and servers (or peer NFS
       clients) due to major  device  mappings  being  different.   The  major
       device  on  the  server  will be a disk, while each client might pick a
       different virtual one for the same mapped filesystem.

       When since processes a target directory via an open file descriptor  on
       stdin  and  the specified db file's pathname is relative to the current
       working directory the entry is read from the  target  rather  than  the
       original  cwd,  as  since has to fchdir(2) to the target to get a valid
       opendir handle on it.  (This happens in filesystem islands; which makes
       this  more of a feature than you'd think.)  Use a full pathname for the
       db file path to avoid this bug.

       KS Braunsdorf, NonPlayer Character Guild
       ksb swirl spam dot minus spam.

       Pete Fritchman
       petef with no-Spam

       sh(1), cat(1), tail(1), xapply(1l), Tee(1l), glob(1l), fchdir(2)

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